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Quality Levels and Procurement of EEE Components for Space applications

The Procurement of Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical Components (EEE) to be used in a Space hardware is always creating troubles and doubts for many and many reasons.

For a chosen device (chosen by the engineering) you must match several parameters in order to perform the right option for the program.

The main problems to be solved are usually:

– the availability of the chosen device from one or more sources;

– the applicable quality level as sometimes you don’t find any qualified device (a typical case is the RF devices) and sometimes you can find the same component from more than one supplier, but you have to change the quality system (e.g. from ESCC to MIL or vice-versa). In some cases, you are allowed (by the program rules) to use lower quality levels inside the same specification system. A classic example is the possibility to use JANTXV level discrete devices (with the “MIL” system, MIL-PRF-19500) instead of the JANS level (the Top-quality level for discrete parts in the MIL system), as it is also a way to decrease the cost of the device;

– the cost of the device and its possible associated Non-Recurring Cost due to screening or LAT/QCI or DPA or Rad Test etc…(also depending on the device type, its source and Product-Assurance Program Requirements);

– the delivery time that should be in accordance with the program schedule.

There are two main authorities which maintain a “control” of the manufacturers of EEE Hi-Reliability devices and QUALIFY the Hi-Rel devices:

ESA (European Space Agency) thanks to the ESCC (European Space Coordination Centre) system in the Netherlands and the CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) in France.

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) with the DLA –Defense Logistics Agency in the United States of America, using the “MIL” system.

Both systems do use a “similar” specification structure.

The ESCC specification system includes broadly Basic, Generic and Detail specifications.

The Basic specifications describe the test methods, the qualification methodology and the general requirements applicable to ESCC qualified components.

The Generic specifications define the general requirements for the qualification, qualification maintenance, procurement, and delivery for each individual family of components.

The Detail specifications describe the performance requirements (ratings and physical/electrical characteristics) and test/inspection for individual or ranges of components.

All specific test methods, used to perform each specific kind of tests, are coming from the NASA /MIL system (e.g.: MIL-STD-883 or MIL-STD-750 or MIL-STD-202 etc.)

The “MIL” system includes broadly:

  • the “Basic” specifications, used to describe test methods and conditions on how to perform each specific test (e.g.: MIL-STD-883 or MIL-STD-750 or MIL-STD-202 etc.),
  • the “General” performance specifications which includes the requirements for the screenings, for the periodic or specific Quality Conformance Inspection (QCI) and for the qualification testing for each individual family of components. (e.g.: MIL-PRF-19500 for Discrete devices or MIL-PRF-38535 for Microcircuits, etc.)
  • the Standard Military/Microcircuit Drawing (SMD) which comprehends the performance requirements for individual or ranges of components.

In both systems Lists of Qualified Devices are also considered: Qualified Part Lists or Preferred Part Lists.

To choose the best solution that fits the program requirements, components can be usually selected from these lists, but the Procurer should in any case try to fit the program requirements with the selectable devices.

Moreover, if the detail procurement specification does not exist, it must be prepared together with other documents, to test the reliability of the not-qualified device. In this instance a first preliminary feedback is given by the inheritance of the chosen device. It is really important to understand the intrinsic reliability of the device. In few cases a very expensive procedure called “Component Evaluation” has to be put in place to test the reliability of a part’s technology. In certain cases, the component needs to perform additional tests such as up-screenings or particular selections.

You should take in consideration that the Procurement activity is not completed simply by selecting a part. At Dimac Red we have internal skills which are able to manage the procurement activities.

The Part Approval Documents (PAD) should be prepared to define exactly how to buy a single component or a family of components, and which inspections should be performed. The PAD is the Id-card of each component, because it defines exactly the details of package, termination finish, manufacturer, procurement specification, part number, but also defines which activities need to be performed to procure each device (Pre-Cap inspection; Final source inspection; Lot Acceptance Test/Quality Conformance Inspection -including or not the Life Test; Destructive Physical Analysis; Radiation Tests etc…).

– The Pre-Cap inspection is an inspection at the manufacturer’s facility to check the parts prior to their encapsulation in the package.

-The Final Source Inspection is performed before authorizing the manufacturer to ship the parts; this inspection verifies that the manufacturer has properly carried out all the required tests.

– The Lot Acceptance Test or Quality Conformance Inspection consists of a series of tests divided in groups (Electrical Tests, Environmental Tests, Mechanical Tests, Endurance Tests) to be performed on a sample basis (defined by the system used- ESCC or MIL) to check the reliability of the manufactured lot.

– The Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) usually consists of picking three pieces which are used and destroyed to perform a series of analyses on the termination finish, on the hermeticity of the package, on the internal bonding of the die etc. It aims to demonstrate the good assembly of the device.

– The Radiation Tests are destructive tests to be performed on devices that are suspected to be not resistant or sensitive to the radiations. The requirements depend on the foreseen orbit and on the mission life of the satellite (these last two requirements define the mandatory minimum radiation level for the EEE). The radiation resistance of the parts depends mainly on the technology of the devices and partially on the production batch. It can truly be said that it is intrinsic to the device technology.

There are two main types of radiation tests:

  • Total Ionization Dose test which, depending on the technology of the component, can be performed at:
    1. High Dose Rate (50÷300 Rad(Si)/sec.) means about 1KRad per Hour
    2. Low Dose Rate (0,1 Rad(Si)/sec.) means 360Rad per Hour
    3. Enhanced Low Dose Rate (0,01 Rad(Si)/sec.) means 36 Rad per Hour

This kind of radiation test is based on the accumulated energy that the device can tolerate in the junction without a significant degradation of its electrical/physical performances.

  • Single Event Effects test, which is destructive and the behaviour of the component depends only on its technology. These tests are not “sensitive” to the different manufacturing lots, and are more expensive than the TID test.

This kind of radiation test is based on the possibility that a heavy Ion will hit the die and transfer his energy to the junction, creating more energy than the required, so the device changes permanently its electrical behaviour and could even be destroyed. Depending on the die technology, many different problems can be observed: Single Event Gate Rupture, in case of a mosfet is tested; Single Event Latch-Up, in case a Linear Ic is tested; Single Event Transient, in case of a digital device; Single Event Upset etc.

The last final check should be made by the Incoming Inspection of the “procurer” (in some cases substituted by the Final Inspection at manufacturer’s premises if electrical tests are not performed at the Customer’s premises). The Incoming Inspection validates that the received components are fully in accordance to the requirement of the Purchase Order, and are in the right quantity, visually acceptable and electrically within the foreseen specification limits. The Documentation (Data Package) should be in accordance to the requirements and it must be checked that during the various tests no failures exceeds the PDA (Percent Defective Allowable) limits.

Thanks to his partners (with a long heritage in Space activities), Dimac Red is able to perform Electrical tests, DPA’s, Radiation tests, up-screenings and any required additional activity.

So as you can see, to perform a good procurement, all the requirements of the program must be very clear and well known since the beginning and the devices must be selected taking into account the qualification or heritage they really accumulated. Many and many aspects must be considered in addition to the unit price…And a co-operation between “Procurement” and “Engineering” is really important.

By Giovanni Di Salvo

Do you want to know more? Please do not hesitate to contact the experts at dimacred@dimacred.com

Terms&
Conditions

Terms and Conditions – Condizioni di fornitura  –   Rev 1.4   Date: 17/05/2019

General information
All deliveries and services, including the sale of software, are carried out by Dimac red (hereinafter Dimac) solely in accordance with these Terms & Conditions of sale and payment. Any other different conditions indicated in any form by the Buyer are expressly excluded. Other conditions shall be legally binding only if accepted by Dimac in writing and in advance of the Customer Purchase Order/Contract. Upon sending the Purchase Order/Contract to Dimac, the Buyer is deemed to have read and accepted these Terms & Conditions of sale. Any clause or purchase condition included in buyer’s purchase order, not specifically approved by Dimac, will not be considered applicable to the contract. The Dimac purchase order acknowledgement does not imply acceptance of any Buyer’s purchase order condition unless previously agreed in writing between the parties for the same contract.

Informazioni Generali
Tutte le consegne ed i servizi, inclusa la vendita di software, sono svolte da Dimac red (di seguito Dimac) esclusivamente in conformità con i termini e le condizioni di vendita e di pagamento indicate nel presente documento. Qualsiasi altra condizione diversa indicata in qualsiasi forma da parte dell’Acquirente, è espressamente esclusa. Altre condizioni saranno giuridicamente vincolanti solo se accettate da Dimac in forma scritta ed in anticipo rispetto all’Ordine o Contratto dell’Acquirente. L’Acquirente rilasciando l’ordine a Dimac, dichiara di conoscere ed accettare le presenti condizioni di vendita. Qualsiasi clausola o condizione inclusa nell’ordine di acquisto del Acquirente, non specificamente approvata per iscritto da Dimac red, non sarà considerata applicabile al contratto. La conferma d’ordine emessa da Dimac non implica l’accettazione di alcuna condizione di acquisto dell’Acquirente, se non preventivamente concordata per iscritto tra le parti, per lo stesso contratto.

Quotation and delivery
Quotations from Dimac are not binding. An order will be deemed to be accepted when Dimac sends the order acknowledgment.

Dimac reserves the right to make manufacturing changes or modifications to any technical data and characteristics of the product, as part of ongoing product improvement.

Any drawings or other document attached to the offer are provided for the exclusive use of the buyer, who is prohibited from making copies or disclosing them to third parties without prior written authorization by Dimac. Any minor errors found in correspondence or in the agreements are not binding for Dimac and shall not give the buyer any right to compensation.

Quotazione e Consegna
Le offerte inoltrate al cliente da Dimac, se non limitate nel tempo, sono sempre intese senza impegno; determinante per il volume e per l’oggetto delle forniture e prestazioni è esclusivamente la conferma d’ordine scritta di Dimac. Gli ordini sono da considerare accettati solo nel momento dell’emissione della conferma d’ordine da parte di Dimac. Dimac si riserva il diritto di apportare modifiche costruttive o modifiche di altri dati tecnici e caratteristici dei prodotti, se queste risultano utili al miglioramento tecnico.

Eventuali disegni o altra documentazione allegata all’offerta sono destinati esclusivamente all’utilizzo dell’acquirente, al quale è fatto divieto di ricavarne copie o di renderli accessibili a terzi senza previa autorizzazione scritta da parte di Dimac.

Eventuali errori materiali riconoscibili contenuti nella corrispondenza o negli accordi non sono vincolanti per Dimac e non danno all’acquirente alcun diritto di risarcimento.

Prices and payment
 Prices are ex-works Dimac premises and do not include legally-applicable value-added tax. If the base of calculation changes, due to a change in the reference currency exchange rate, Dimac reserves the right to make price adjustments.

Shipment costs shall be borne by the buyer, unless otherwise agreed. In the case of a delay in payment, interest will apply according to current laws, without prejudice the right to the greater damage. If the buyer does not respect the payment terms indicated in the offer and/or in the order acknowledgment, Dimac could possibly halt the shipment of further deliveries (unless different conditions have been previously agreed and accepted in writing by Dimac).

Prezzi e pagamenti
I prezzi sono franco Dimac (franco magazzino Dimac) e non comprendono l’Imposta sul Valore Aggiunto applicabile legalmente. Se la base di calcolo cambia, per motivi legati al cambio della valuta di riferimento, Dimac si riserva il diritto di effettuare adeguamenti dei prezzi. I costi di spedizione sono a carico dell’Acquirente, salvo accordi diversi. In caso di ritardo di pagamento si applicheranno gli interessi moratori in vigore ex lege, fatto salvo il diritto al maggior danno. Nel caso in cui l’Acquirente non rispettasse i termini di pagamento indicati nell’offerta e/o nella conferma d’ordine, Dimac potrà sospendere le eventuali ulteriori consegne in corso (salvo diversi accordi preventivamente concordati ed accettati in forma scritta da parte di Dimac).

Delivery Time
The delivery time starts from the date specified in the order acknowledgment issued by Dimac, and is binding except when other technical and/or commercial specifications are needed. The Delivery time is deemed to be completed when the  goods are shipped  from Dimac.

Dimac shall not be liable for delivery delays due to force majeure events, which includes strikes, lockouts, wars, police actions, sabotages, flooding, meteorological events, earthquakes, etc. The above also applies to date changes caused by delays in delivery of products by Subcontractors/Suppliers. The delivery time is conditional upon compliance of the contractual obligations of the Buyer.

Termini di consegna
Il termine di consegna decorre dalla data specificata nella conferma d’ordine emessa da Dimac ed è vincolante – salvo il caso in cui necessitino ulteriori specifiche tecniche e/o commerciali. Il termine di consegna si ritiene rispettato con riguardo al momento della spedizione dallo stabilimento Dimac.

Dimac non è responsabile per i ritardi nella consegna dovuti a cause di forza maggiore, che includono scioperi, serrate, guerre, azioni di polizia, sabotaggi, alluvioni, eventi meteorologici, terremoti, ecc. Quanto sopra vale anche per sfasamenti temporali causati da ritardi nella consegna dei prodotti da parte di terzi (subappaltatori e/o Fornitori). Il rispetto dei termini di consegna da parte di Dimac è subordinato al rispetto degli obblighi contrattuali da parte dell’Acquirente.

Risk of Loss or Damage
The risk for loss or damage will be the buyer’s responsibility when the goods are shipped or when the notification of availability for the shipment is sent.

Passaggio del rischio
Il passaggio del rischio inerente all’oggetto della fornitura avviene con la spedizione o con l’avviso di disponibilità per la spedizione.

Buyer’s Goods Acceptance
Dimac considers the goods as accepted by the buyer unconditionally and compliance with the order unless a formal written claim has been notified within fifteen (15) calendar days from the reception of the goods. In case of a hidden defect, the buyer must notify Dimac within 8 calendar days of the defect being detected.

Accettazione dei beni da parte dell’Acquirente
La consegna dei beni decorsi quindici (15) giorni solari dal giorno di ricezione senza che siano stati formulati per iscritto fondati reclami – implica l’incondizionata accettazione degli stessi da parte dell’acquirente e l’avvenuto accertamento della conformità all’ordine. In caso di difetto occulto, la denunzia dovrà essere formalizzata entro 8  giorni solari dalla scoperta.

Use and Guarantee of Software
With the delivery of any material/hardware that contains any kind of software, Dimac transfers to the buyer the non-exclusive and non-transferable usage rights which are limited temporally to the productive life of the relative hardware. Dimac preserves the ownership of the copyrights, industrial property rights and all of the relative industrial protection rights. Eventually, the right to make copies shall be granted exclusively for the purpose of data security and backup and shall be limited to one copy. The removal of any copyright notices is prohibited. Transfer to third parties is not permitted without specific previous written authorization by Dimac. Software modifications are not permitted.

Uso e Garanzia del Software
Con la consegna di qualsiasi materiale/hardware contenente software, Dimac trasferisce all’Acquirente i diritti di utilizzo non esclusivi e non trasferibili, in ogni caso limitati temporalmente alla vita produttiva del relativo hardware. Dimac conserva la proprietà dei diritti d’autore, diritti di proprietà industriale e di tutti i relativi diritti di protezione industriale L’eventuale diritto di estrazione di copia è concesso esclusivamente ai fini della sicurezza dei dati ed il backup deve essere limitato ad una sola copia, con la proibizione di rimuovere gli eventuali avvisi di copyright. Non è consentito il trasferimento a terzi, senza una previa e specifica autorizzazione scritta da Dimac. In questo caso, detta terza parte dovrà accettare per iscritto i presenti termini e condizioni. E’ fatto divieto di apportare modifiche ai software.

Warranty
Warranty of products supplied by Dimac apply for a period of twelve (12) months unless otherwise specified in the quotation. Warranty starts from the date of goods delivery to the buyer. Warranty will not apply  both in case of improper use and/or out of product’s specification as well in case the product has been altered.  Specifically, warranty will not be applicable in case of:  unsuitable or improper use or storage performed by the customer or by a third parties; faulty installation by the customer or by third parties; unauthorized repair and/or modification attempts; erroneous or negligent handling; chemical, electrical or similar effects outside of Dimac’s control, as well as in all cases of misuse and use that is not expected or contemplated by or not compliant with the provisions of applicable user manuals and data sheets.

Garanzia
I prodotti forniti da Dimac sono garantiti per un periodo di dodici (12) mesi, se non diversamente specificato nell’offerta. La garanzia decorre dalla data di consegna dei beni all’Acquirente. I termini di garanzia decadono automaticamente sia nel caso si verifichi un utilizzo improprio e/o fuori specifica del prodotto sia per manomissione dello stesso. Nello specifico Dimac si riserva il diritto di revocare la garanzia in caso di: uso o immagazzinamento improprio da parte dell’acquirente o da parte di terzi; errata installazione da parte dell’acquirente o da terzi; riparazioni o tentativi di modifica non autorizzati; manipolazione errata o negligente; effetti chimici, elettrici o simili al di fuori del controllo di Dimac, così come in tutti i casi di uso improprio e uso non previsto o non contemplato o non conforme alle disposizioni del manuale d’uso applicabile e fogli di catalogo.

Quality Defects
Following a formal complaint as detailed at chapter 6, Dimac will carry out all the necessary actions to resolve complaint in the shortest possible time. Dimac cannot be held responsible for any defect or any consequential losses that may occur caused by products that are out of warranty.

Difetti qualitativi
A fronte di formale segnalazione di difettosità nei termini di cui al capo n. 6  Dimac procederà ad effettuare le azioni necessarie a risolvere il difetto segnalato nel più breve tempo possibile.  Dimac non potrà essere ritenuta responsabile per eventuali difetti né per qualsiasi conseguenza che si verifichi, a causa di prodotti fuori garanzia.

Defects of legal title
 If the supplied goods require industrial property rights or copyrights during the lifetime of the product, Dimac will attempt to  obtain the necessary rights to allow the buyer to continue using the item in question.  If this is not possible, Dimac shall modify the goods to allow the customer to continue to use it. If the solution is not achievable within a reasonable amount of time, Dimac shall have the right to withdraw from the contract, without any penalty.

Difetti giuridici
Laddove il bene fornito necessitasse nel tempo di ulteriori diritti di proprietà industriale o copyright, Dimac si impegna ad  ottenere i diritti necessari per consentire all’acquirente di continuare a utilizzare il bene in oggetto. Ove ciò non fosse possibile, Dimac si impegna ad apportare le modifiche al bene in modalità tali da consentirne al Cliente l’utilizzo.

Se la soluzione non fosse individuata entro un ragionevole lasso di tempo, ovvero si rivelasse irrealizzabile / inaccettabile / antieconomica, Dimac potrà recedere dal contratto, senza alcuna penalità.

Constraints or impossibility to fulfil the delivery or performance
In the event that, after issuing the purchase order and the related Dimac’s order confirmation, the materials / services covered by the contract were limited to export / import (for example US ITAR / EAR standards) for any reason (up to the impossibility of delivery), Dimac can not be held responsible and the supply contract will automatically be considered solved without payment of penalties.

In any other case, after the conclusion of the purchase order and following Dimac’s order acknowledgment, any cancellation of the order by the buyer may result in the buyer becoming liable for any of Dimac’s incurred costs and penalties. If the products is ready for shipment from Dimac, the buyer will be liable for the total payment due for the order.

If the service and/or performance requested from Dimac becomes impossible to be partially or completely fulfilled for any reason outside of Dimac capabilities or responsibility, the Customer may withdraw from the contract and agree with Dimac any liabilities for the cancellation, whilst recognizing Dimac’s costs incurred by the cancellation.

Vincoli o Impossibilità di adempiere alla consegna o alle prestazioni.
Nel caso in cui, dopo l’emissione dell’ordine di acquisto e della relativa conferma d’ordine Dimac, i materiali / le prestazioni oggetto del contratto venissero limitati all’esportazione /importazione (ad esempio norme USA ITAR/EAR) per qualsiasi causa (fino all’impossibilità di consegna), Dimac non potrà ritenersi responsabile ed il contratto di fornitura dovrà considerarsi automaticamente risolto senza corresponsione di penali.

In ogni altro caso, laddove l’Acquirente, successivamente alla conclusione del contratto a seguito della conferma d’ordine da parte di Dimac, decidesse per l’eventuale annullamento dell’ordine di acquisto, dovrà riconoscere a Dimac tutti i costi sopportati e le eventuali penali concordate in ragione della cancellazione. Nel caso in cui i prodotti fossero già stati approntati da Dimac, l’Acquirente sarà tenuto a riconoscere a Dimac il corrispettivo totale dovuto per la fornitura.

Nel caso in cui il servizio e/o la prestazione richiesta a Dimac diventi impossibile parzialmente o completamente da soddisfare per qualsiasi ragione, non a causa di capacità e/o responsabilità di Dimac, l’Acquirente potrà recedere dal contratto e concordare con Dimac le clausole della cancellazione, riconoscendo a Dimac tutti i costi che la cancellazione richiede.

Applications
All products supplied by Dimac. have not been specifically designed for use in applications or systems to be surgically inserted in the human body or in systems to be used in nuclear environment. In case the buyer intends to use the products supplied by Dimac in medical or nuclear applications, the buyer must request and receive written acceptance, signed by Dimac and/or by the product’s Manufacturer, certifying the product suitability for the intended application before placing the order.

Applicazioni
Tutti i prodotti forniti da Dimac  non sono stati specificatamente progettati per l’uso in applicazioni o sistemi da inserire chirurgicamente nel corpo umano o per essere utilizzati in ambiente nucleare. Nel caso in cui l’acquirente intendesse utilizzare i prodotti forniti da Dimac in applicazioni mediche o nucleari, dovrà preventivamente richiedere ed ottenere apposito nulla osta sottoscritto da Dimac e/o dal costruttore del prodotto, che certifichi l’idoneità del prodotto stesso per l’applicazione prevista.

Confidentiality
The buyer undertakes to handle all information, know-how and other industrial secrets in connection with the execution of orders with the utmost confidentiality and not to transfer or disclose any information, documentation, file, drawings, sketches or other documents,  to third parties without express authorization by Dimac. In particular, the buyer agrees to keep confidential all information and data, of both technical and commercial nature, exchanged between the parties during execution of the supply pursuant to these Terms & Conditions.

Dimac shall also treat all customer’s data as confidential, in accordance with the EU regulation n. 2016/679 “General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A request for quotation or an estimate from Dimac by a buyer authorizes Dimac to handle all the sensitive and/or personal data according to Italian D.L no. EU regulation 2016/679 “General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)”, with the scope to record and correctly manage and process the quotation, estimate or order.

Riservatezza
L’Acquirente si impegna a gestire tutte le informazioni ricevute (know-how e altri segreti industriali in connessione con l’esecuzione degli ordini) con la massima riservatezza e a non trasferire o rivelare qualsiasi informazione, documentazione, file, archivio, disegni, bozze o altro materiale anche cartaceo a terzi senza espressa autorizzazione da Dimac. In particolare, l’acquirente si impegna a mantenere riservate tutte le informazioni e i dati, sia di natura tecnica che commerciale, scambiati tra le parti durante l’esecuzione della fornitura ai sensi dei presenti termini e condizioni.

Dimac tratterà i dati dei clienti in modo riservato, in conformità con le disposizioni del Regolamento (UE) n. 2016/679 “Regolamento Generale sulla Protezione dei Dati (GDPR)”. Richiedendo quotazione o preventivo a Dimac, l’acquirente accetta espressamente di autorizzare Dimac a gestire i dati sensibili e/o personali comunicati, ai sensi del D.L. italiano no. Regolamento (UE) n. 2016/679 “Regolamento Generale sulla Protezione dei Dati (GDPR)”, con lo scopo di registrare, gestire ed elaborare correttamente l’ordine.

Ethical code
The buyer agrees with Dimac’s code of conduct and acknowledges that highlights have been communicated to the buyer’s management and collaborators. The buyer agrees to undertake all necessary measures to prevent illegal behavior, especially to the detriment of Dimac. The buyer must take appropriate precautions within its organization in order to monitor the compliance of its collaborator’s to the ethical code, particularly regarding the prevention of corruption or other crimes.

To overview the ethical code, please refer to this link:

https://www.dimacred.com/about-dimac/code-of-ethics/

Codice etico

L’Acquirente assicura di aver preso visione del Codice di Condotta Dimac e di aver comunicato i punti salienti ai propri dirigenti e collaboratori. Per assicurare una buona condotta, l’acquirente si impegna ad assumere tutte le misure necessarie per prevenire comportamenti illegali, specialmente a discapito di Dimac. L’acquirente dovrà quindi prendere le dovute precauzioni organizzative interne al fine di monitorare l’aderenza del comportamento dei collaboratori al codice di condotta, in particolare per quanto riguarda la prevenzione di atti di corruzione e altri reati.

Per prendere visione del codice di condotta si rimanda al link seguente di cui al sito internet:

https://www.dimacred.com/about-dimac/code-of-ethics/

Place of jurisdiction
Any disputes shall be under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court of Milano.

Luogo di Giurisdizione
Eventuali controversie saranno di competenza esclusiva del Tribunale di Milano.

Applicable law
Italian law shall apply.

Legge applicabile
Si applica la legge Italiana.